Relations entre les facteurs psychologiques et la performance en lutte gréco-romaine

Ioannis Barbas, Nikos Aggeloussis, Taxildaris Kiriakos

Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Komotini, Greece

Résumé (traduit) :

Le but de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs psychologiques qui affectent la performance en lutte gréco-romaine. On a établi des questionnaires spécifiques qu'on a fait remplir par cent athlètes qui ont participé aux Championnats du Monde de lutte gréco-romaine de 1997 qui ont eu lieu en Pologne. Avec les questionnaires, on a enregistré les aspects de ces athlètes en fonction d'un grand nombre de paramètres qui auraient pu se révéler importants pour la performance en lutte. On a évalué les fréquences des variables et on a fait une analyse de facteurs pour le traitement statistique de l'information. Les résultats ont montré que les éléments psychologiques les plus importants pour la performance en lutte étaient : la volonté (77.9%), la confiance en soi (63.2%), le calme (61.8%) et la concentration (61.8%). L'analyse des facteurs a extrait deux facteurs. Le premier, identifié comme "psychophysique", décrivait 36.49% et le second, identifié comme mental, décrivait 30.26%.

Mots clés :

Lutte gréco-romaine, facteurs psychologiques, performance

Contacts :

Democritus University of Thrace

Department of Physical Education & Sports Science

7th Km Komotini-Xanthi

69100 Komotini

Greece

n.aggelousis@users.duth.gr


Relationship between psychological factors and performance
in greco-roman wrestling

Barbas Ioannis, Aggeloussis Nikos, Taxildaris Kiriakos

Democritus University of Thrace, Department of Physical Education & Sports Science, Komotini, Greece

Abstract (supplied by the authors) :

The purpose of this study was the determination of the psychological factors that affect the performance in Greco-Roman wrestling. Special questionnaires were constructed and filled up by one hundred athletes who participated in the 1997 World Championships of Greco-Roman wrestling that was held in Polland. The questionnaires recorded the aspects of those athletes regarding a great number of parameters that might have been important for the wrestling performance. The frequencies of the variables were computed and a factor analysis was conducted for the statistical treatment of the data. The results showed that the most important psychological elements of the wresting performance were the volition (77.9%) the self-confidence (63.2%), the calmness (61.8%) and the concentrate (61.8%). The factor analysis extracted two factors. The first described the 36.49% and was identified as “psycho-physical’’ while the second described the 30.26% and was identified as “ mental’’.

Keys-words :

Greco-Roman wrestling, psychological factors, performance

 

 

 

Introduction

            It is well established that performance in Greco-Roman wrestling is affected by several factors including physical strength and power, flexibility, endurance, high level technique and wresting strategy. Moreover, the psychological profile of the wrestler is considered to have the same significance with physical power and technique.

            Several studies examined the psychological and cognitive parameters and their relation to performance. Gould et al (1981) found that successful wrestlers were more self-confident and more frequently focused their attention on wrestling related thoughts prior to competition. Highlen & Bennett (1979) also found that good wrestlers have less stress and anxiety and greater self-confidence. In adittion, Gould et al (1987) found that, psychological attributes of mental toughness, positive attitude, individual motivation and attention concentration were most important for successive wrestling. In the same study anxiety-stress control, attention-concentration, lack of confidence and mental toughness were reported as areas in which wrestlers most frequently experienced problems. Significantly fewer studies dealt with the psychological characteristics of elite wrestlers in Greco-Roman wrestling. Popov (1999) reported that determinance and militancy are among the most significant factors that affect the wrestling performance.

            The purpose of the present study was the identification of the psychological factors that affect performance in modern Greco-Roman wrestling.

Method

            One hundred athletes from 27 countries all over the world voluntarily participated in the study. The subjects competed in the 1997 World Men Championships of Greco-Roman Wrestling that was held in Poland. They were asked to fill in a specifically designed questionnaire that was constructed to record the aspects of those athletes regarding the relationship between a great number of psychological parameters and the wrestling performance. A seven-grade scale was used to record the magnitude of the relationship between every psychological characteristic and wrestling performance with the seventh grade representing the strongest relationship. Descriptive statistics and factor analysis were employed for the statistical treatment of the data.

Results

            The mean values (maximum possible score was 7) of the subjects’ aspects regarding the significance of the variables for high wrestling performance are depicted in Table 1.

Table 1. Mean values of the subjects’ aspects regarding the most important characteristics for high wrestling performance

Variables

Mean

SD

Variables

Mean

SD

perception

5.78

1.18

adaptability

5.97

1.11

imagination

5.82

1.25

courage

6.25

.89

initiative

5.49

1.42

determinance

6.31

.82

ingenuity

5.32

1.31

volition

6.69

.67

perceptiveness

5.75

1.27

self-confidence

6.49

.82

aggressiveness

6.12

1.15

alertness

6.24

.87

tactics

6.46

.82

concentrate

6.51

.70

talent

5.68

1.66

calmness

6.47

.76

 

            The factor analysis extracted two major factors. The first factor had an eigenvalue of 2.92 and described the 36.49% of the data variation. The eigenvalue of the second factor was 2.42 and the factor described the 30.26% of the data variation. The loadings of the variables on each factor are depicted on Table 2.

 

Table 2. Loadings of the variables on each of the two factors

 

 

factor

 

factor

Variables

1

2

Variables

1

2

 

perception

-0.04

0.73

adaptability

0.24

 0.66

 

imagination

 0.04

0.78

courage

0.47

-0.23

 

initiative

-0.17

0.60

determinance

0.68

-0.08

 

ingenuity

-0.11

0.57

volition

0.64

-0.03

 

perceptiveness

-0.01

0.71

self-confidence

0.44

-0.01

 

aggressiveness

  0.77

0.16

alertness

0.68

-0.04

 

tactics

  0.18

0.72

concentrate

0.78

  0.09

 

talent

-0.09

0.85

calmness

0.63

  0.32

 

 

            Based on the variables that load on each factor, the first factor was identified as “psycho-physical’’ while the second was identified as “ mental’’

Discussion

            The aspects of elite wrestlers from all over the world were studied regarding the relationship of selected psychological and mental characteristics with the Greco-Roman wrestling performance. The results revealed that psychological attributes of volition, self-confidence, calmness, concentrate, determinance, courage, aggressiveness and alertness along with tactics were most important for successive Greco-Roman wrestling. These finding are in accordance with the findings of previous studies (Gould et al, 1981; Gould et al, 1987; Highlen & Bennett, 1979; Popov, 1994).

            The factor analysis revealed that two major factors affect the wrestling performance in Greco-Roman wrestling. According to the elite wrestlers of the world the competitive Greco-Roman wrestler has to master both psycho-physical and mental abilities. This finding is also in close agreement with the strategies that coaches usually develop with their athletes (Gould et al, 1981).

Conclusion

            The elite Greco-Roman wrestles believe that the most successful wrestlers have great volition, determinance and courage. They are more self-confident, calm, concentrated, aggressive and always stay alert. These aspects can be very useful by coaches and scientist involved in Greco-Roman wrestling in the detection of young athletes qualified for high wrestling performances.

References

Gould D., Weiss M. & Weinberg R. (1981). Psychological characteristics of successful and nonsuccessful Big Ten Wrestlers. Journal of Sport Psychology, 3(1), 69-81

Gould D., Nodge K., Peterson K. & Petlichkoff L. (1987). Psychological foundations of coaching: similarities and differences among intercollegiate wrestling coaches. Sport Psychologist, 1(4), 293-308

Highlen P. S. & Bennett B. B. (1979). Psychological characteristics of successful and nonsuccessful elite wrestlers: an exploratory study. Journal of sport-psychology, 1(2), 123-137

Popov N. (1994). Basic components of self-awareness in sports and art in relation to the technological progress. Sport research, 11-12, 52-6